Code And Algorithm – Hommage à Vera Molnar

Vasarely Museum Budapest, Oct. 2019 - March 2020

The exhibition is convened on the basis of personal invitations with the principal objective of placing early generative works as well as new approaches in an international context.

OSAS (Open Structures Art Society)

Or it could be a stochastic manipulation of the visual unit chosen either by probabilistic experiments or by pseudo-random numbers covering a certain range of the process variance, or by random walk models and the combination thereof. The fundamental approach here is basically identical with that of mathematical group theory. First, the choice of a (visual) unit and then operations on that unit such as listed above. Note, however, that this methodology represents a closed or complete system as the results of the operations remain within the same system. 


This is clearly an example of art encountering science. The demonstration of the existence of this close relationship is one of the principal missions of OSAS. 


These questions were already in the forefront of computer-generated art in the 60s at international level in tandem with the development of early computer graphics. Some of the local Hungarian artists followed the same algorithmic principles, however, manually as there was no access to modern digital technology due the Iron Curtain and the US CoCom restrictions. This has slowly changed with time but of course the breakthrough did not happen before the major political changes that swept through Central Europe at the beginning of the 90s. As a result of rapidly changing technological development a great number of new materials, tools and techniques, such as PCs, video, facsimile, scanners, Xerox machines, Internet and other means are available now for the artists.


Dedicated to Vera Molnar on the occasion of her 95th birthday 

Many dynamic systems in nature and society display nonlinear behavior yet following some rules according to certain known or unknown principles. With small displacements during a fairly long sequence often not much change is observable in the dynamics of the system and/or with its evolutionary behavior. The system could further be loaded without fundamental changes in its characteristics. And then all of a sudden a tipping point/breakthrough is reached when the dynamic behavior of the system changes abruptly and it goes through a mutation. That is how climate change, population dynamics, prison outbreaks and revolutions work, for instance. Examples from the field of contemporary music are the compositions by John Cage and Philip Glass while in art early works by Vera Molnar, François Morellet, Manfred Mohr, Attila Kovács, Frieder Nake, A. Michel Noll, Ferenc Lantos, Dóra Maurer and András Mengyán could be cited in this context, just to mention but a few.

Sequential/serial works often generate aesthetical meaning through certain know, random or hidden rules/algorithms/codes. The rule could be a procedure defined by the artist such as operations on a chosen visual unit, such as a square for instance as is the case with Vera Molnar's works. These operations might include deterministic repetition, shifting, rotation, color or form inversion, symmetrical or asymmetric mirroring, covering, scale transition and/or fractal behavior, respectively.

2x Square Grid Moire, 2019

UV print on paper, 50x50 cm

Vera Molnár, Sainte-Victoire, egy vonalból, 1999

François Morellet, Répartition aléatoire de 40 000 carrés ...


Jeneses Adam  

Ádám Albert 1975 (Hungary)

Hooz Anna  

Tihanyi Aron  

Barna Benedek 1973 (Hungary)

Max Bill 1908 (Switzerland)

Marianna Bodi  

Jose Breval  (France)

Tibor Csiky 1932 (Hungary)

Laszlo Csizy  

Maria Cuevas  (Spain)

Szlovicsak Domotor  

Aleksander Drakulic  

Jean-François Dubreuil 1946 (France)

Márton Fernezelyi 1972 (Hungary)

Tibor Gayor 1929 (Hungary)

István Haraszty 1934 (Hungary)

Gerhard Hotter 1954 (Germany)

Viktor Hulík 1949 (Slovakia)

Tamás Jovánovics 1974 (Hungary)

Béla Julesz 1928 (Hungary)

Andras Kappanyos  

Hiroshi Kawano 1925 (Japan)

Antal Kelle 1953 (Hungary)

Harmati Kitti  

Attila Kovács 1938 (Hungary)

Kovács Gyula Kurtapataki  

Ferenc Lantos  (Hungary)

Imre Lepsényi 1974 

Josef Linschinger 1945 (Austria)

Richard Paul Lohse 1902 (Switzerland)

Bence Marafkó  (Hungary)

Dóra Maurer 1937 (Hungary)

András Mengyán 1945 (Hungary)

Manfred Mohr 1938 (Germany)

Vera Molnár 1924 (Hungary)

François Morellet 1926 (France)

Judith Nem's 1948 (Hungary)

Daniel Nemeth  

Andrzej Jakub Olejniczak  

Gabor Palotai 1956 (Hungary)

Henri Prosi 1936 (France)

Ferenc Pócsy  

Anna Rehorovszky  

Torsten Ridell 1946 (Sweden)

Albert Rubens 1944 (Belgium)

Jan Schoonhoven Jr. 1975 (Netherlands)

Mark Starel  (Poland)

Klaus Staudt 1932 (Germany)

Esther Stocker 1974 (Italy)

Peter Struycken 1939 (Netherlands)

Zoltán Szegedy-Maszák 1969 (Hungary)

Kamilla Szij 1957 (Hungary)

Loránd Szécsényi-Nagy  

Eva Tubak-Bortnyik  

Péter Türk 1943 (Hungary)

Ryszard Winiarski 1936 (Poland)

András Wolsky 1969 

Joanna Zak  (Poland)

Andras Zalavari 1986 (Hungary)